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Fiber optical cables are one of the fastest mode of transmission of data. Fiber optical are any transmission medium that use glass to transfer data in forms of light pulses. Light signals contains necessary information that pass over as on and off signals. Light source is generally LED (Light emitting diode) or laser and they travel inside the glass medium. When the light pulse reaches the destination, a sensor picks up the presence or absence of the signal and transforms Ons and Offs into electrical signals that represent ones and zeros.

Advantages of using Fiber Optical transmission:
• No loss in signals: Since light is the transmission media rather than electromagnetic pulse, there is no loss due to electromagnetic interference. Most copper transmission suffers because of this problem.

• High Data rate: Light travels a lot faster than any other medium, hence much higher data transfer rates (50 THz or higher) are possible with fiber-optic technologies. Data rates far exceeding the gigabit per second (Gbps) range and higher are possible

• Longer transfer distance: Traditional copper cables loose signal strength as they move along cable, due to electromagnetic interference. Normal transfer distance of a copper cable is normally one kilometer. Fiber optical cable can transmit data over 70 KM.

• Better security: Copper cable transmission signal can be intercepted by using Taps (wiretap). Tap is a device that touches the copper cable, duplicate the signal and send it to a different location. Because fiber cable uses light, it is immune to eves dropping as light will get blocked if interrupted in between.

Fiber optical cables are little bit expensive than traditional medium , but since they can travel long distance and has higher data transfer rate they are good investment for future ,and are capable to meet increase in data requirement without requiring additional installation.

Already, push to bring broadband services; including data, audio, and video conferencing, into the home is well underway. Fiber optical transmission brings to reality interactive video networks, interactive banking and shopping from the home, and interactive distance learning.

Applications of Fiber Optics:
• Broadcast
• Telecommunications
• High Image resolutions imaging
• Distant learning courses
• Teleconferencing
• Security Systems and Surveillance Cameras